Sunday, March 8, 2020
Traditional Massages essays Ancient Massage or Thai Massage is an extraordinary method of aligning the energies of the body, and originates from the time of the Buddha. Nuad Phaen Boran as is it called in Thailand, correctly translates only as Ancient Massage or Traditional Massage. More widely known today as Thai Massage, it is also often called Traditional Thai Massage, Ancient Thai Massage and occasionally Yoga Massage or Thai Yoga Massage. In our web pages, we wanted to use only Ancient Massage to be faithful to the original appellation but had to change our mind and also use Thai Massage to be referenced correctly by the search engines. If we did not use the words "Thai Massage", who would have found us and the information we wanted to share with students, researchers and practitioners of this art. The Healing Hands Center offers training not only in Ancient Massage or Thai Massage but also in Yoga, Tai Chi, Reiki, and other healing arts by masters in these various disciplines. At the time of the Buddha, among the lay physicians, the most renowned was Jivaka Komarabhacca, who is described as providing free medical care to the Buddha and other monks and donating his mango grove at Rajagaha for use as a monastic community, named Jivakarama. Jivaka's fame as a healer was widely known and tales about his life and medical feats can be found in almost all versions of Buddhist scriptures. Concerning his interest in medicine and his medical education, in the Pali account, Jivaka, as he approached the age at which he must seek his own livelihood, decided to learn the medical craft. Hearing about a world-famous physician in Taxila, he traveled to that city, famous for education, to apprentice with the eminent doctor. After seven years of medical study, he took a practical examination that tested his knowledge of medical herbs, passed with extraordinary success, and, with the blessings of mentor, went off to practice medicine. In the Sanskrit-Tibetan version,...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Summary - Assignment Example Furthermore, the author of this book found out that manual labor is not interesting, and it is taxing and degrading. She asserts that the constant and repeated movement of their bodies is able to create a risk of repeated injury. Furthermore, these people suffer from too much body pain, but they have to hold on. Ehrenreich (22) further explains that the management of these manual laborers normally frustrates the work input of these workers. This is because they give these employees pointless tasks, which make their experiences to be miserable. Ehrenreich (27) talks against the questionnaires and personality tests which are designed for purposes of weeding out employees who are not compatible with the organization. The author argues that these activities are a violation of the liberties of the workers, and they deter potential applicants, from applying. Furthermore, these activities have very little impact in improving the work performance of an employee. The author further asserts that in areas where there is a sign, that help is needed, does not necessarily mean that there is a job opening (Ehrenreich, 33). It aims is to make people apply for the jobs, so that there would be a pool of applicants when a vacancy arises. This is on jobs that have a high labor turnover. The author of this book concludes, by denoting that low waged employees are not living off the generosity of the wealthy, instead, it is the wealthy who are living off their
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
One Dark Night - Essay Example ught about this many a time, but he always gently explained to be that he was only this way because he cared so much about me, and wanted to make everything perfect for me. Somehow, he always managed to convince me, either by sweet-talking me or by some sort of romantic gesture. And I always fell for it. Back at the time, I believe I knew in the back of my mind I was unhappy, but I wasnt willing to admit it even to myself. My appearance and behaviour did not give me away- I was always perceived as the perfect wife who mastered everything from cooking to doing the house chores and everything else (my husband also told me I was "not too shabby" between the sheets). I was constantly being flattered about the house, the food I prepared for our friends and often to my husbands business partners, and it was not uncommon for other men to stare at me and compliment me on my looks, sometimes in inappropriate ways I sort of enjoyed. Of course, my husbands reaction would always come shortly thereafter. He would always make sure that everyone knew that Im his wife, and always did it aggressively, telling the man who flattered me to back off because I am his. This was sometimes followed by a push or a shove. This seemed very bizarre to me, since my husband was anything but violence. I dismissed it by saying to myself that he loves me so much, that he would do anything to protect me, even if Im not in danger. And I also rationalized it by saying that his manly ego wont stand it if another man came on to his wife. In that way, I thought to myself, men arent any different than they were when mankind began. The male is always the dominant one, and doesnt let other men get to close to his wife. Thats why he "marks" her as his territory and guards her well. If only I knew beforehand how right I wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ But my husbands behaviour did not stop there. As a part of his wanting to make everything perfect (or in other words- exactly as he wants it), he would always criticize me about
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Company overview of pakistan telecommunication company limited Introduction Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is the largest telecommunication company in Pakistan. PTCL provides telephonic services to the nation and is the backbone for countrys telecommunication infrastructure. The company consists of around 2000 telephone exchanges across Pakistan. They provide the largest fixed line (land-line) network, currently having 4.8 million fixed line customers. GSM, CDMA and Internet are other services of PTCL. The Government of Pakistan sold 26% shares and control of the company to Etisalat (U.A.Es telecom company) in 2006. The Government of Pakistan retained 62% of the shares while the remaining 12% are with the general public. PTCL also provides Wireless Telephonic network by the name of Vfone, having 1.25 million active customers. Ufone, which is the second largest cellular network in the country, is also owned as a subsidiary of PTCL. Ufone has about 6.5 million mobile subscribers and a market share of nearly 25% currently in Pakistan. PTCL ha s the potential to be an influential means in Pakistans economic growth. It has laid the Optical Fiber Access Network technologies in major metropolitan cities of Pakistan. (Retrieved from http://www.ptcl.com.pk). Privatization of PTCL The process of the privatization of the state owned and managed PTCL was initiated in November 2004. Early in January 2005, 18 companies registered their EOI (Expressions of Interest), out which 3 bidders qualified for the final bidding which held on June 18, 2006. Dubai based company Consortium of Emirates Telecommunication Corporation (Etisalat) and Dubai Islamic Bank, Etisalat International Pakistan (EIP) gave the highest bid US $ 1.96 per share, equivalent to PKR 117.01 per share, which translates into US 2,598,960,000 (2.599 billion) or PKR 155,157,912,000.00. (Retrieved from www.go-pakistan.com). After the purchase of shares of PTCL Etisalat was given permission to fully control the management, which is against the provisions of Companies Ordinance of Pakistan, 1984. This deal has also created much of a drama within the company as well. The employees of PTCL resist this deal and there had been strikes in PTCL offices to oppose this. As many as 40,000 people will quit the job through Voluntary Separation Scheme (VSS) offered by the PTCL management. 60 percent of employees may opt for VSS. Among the 44,000 employees 26,400 will quit the services who have served the organization for as many as 20 years. The cases had been signed by opposition, employees of PTCL against all this scenario and they are still waiting in Supreme Court for hearing. After privatization of PTCL, the company remained encircled by various controversies and disputes, mainly due to bad management by PTCL administration and lack of interest from Government. All this resulted in bringing down the net profit of PTCL from Rs 29 billion before privatization to mere Rs 10 billion. (http:// www. propakistani.pk retrieved dated 16 July, 2008). PTCL employees came to know about a new contract named as U.P.S (Unified Pay Scale). U.P.S highlighted that the previous employment agreements were null and void and no previous benefits could be claimed by any of the employee of PTCL. U.P.S also dispossessed the employees of their respective pensions. Until and unless their demands are met, the employees of PTCL are on a protest. As much as 21000 employees of PTCL would be affected by U.P.S. Employees believe that U.P.S was bought in PTCL to change the status of the employees to contractual status, instead of their permanent ones which was present before. Government had promised the employees that they would be receiving facilities like, pay scale/allowances up gradations, but they were never fulfilled, as the event of privatization had taken place. Significance/Rationale of the study The significance of this study is to identify the post effects of privatization on the employees of PTCL. We will be identifying the level of satisfaction of the employees after the privatization of PTCL. The performance of their employees and similar other indicators will exuberate the dedication of employees to this organization. There is a need for a study concerning how employees perceive changes in their employment system, since this process will result in the change of the management and the policies that were present in PTCL before privatization. Generally, a well motivated and a satisfied employee means that the organization is achieving high levels of productivity. Similarly, if the employee has negative reactions for this process, that would result in de-motivation and dissatisfaction of employees. This is bad for the organization as well as its employees in the future. Aim of the study The main aim of the study is to analyze post effects of privatization on the satisfactory level of employees. This research will look upon the status of employees in PTCL after privatization, especially those employees who had been working in PTCL for more than twenty years and on the variables that have their impact on the PTCL employees. Finding out the consequences that the employees had to face after privatization is also the area of interest. Research objectives The research objectives of this study are as follows: To understand the effects of privatization on the PTCL employees. To study how the job satisfaction of the employees is affected after privatization of PTCL. To investigate how the employees work-related attitudes and strain have changed after privatization of PTCL. To assess the needs of PTCL employees at different hierarchy level. Research questions The questions posed by the researcher in this study are: How are the employees affected by privatization of PTCL? What are the reasons for satisfaction/dissatisfaction of the employees of PTCL? How to increase the job satisfaction of PTCL employees after privatization? Delimitations of the study The study cannot be undertaken on a broad scale because of the following constraints and will be delimited to only the city of Islamabad/Rawalpindi. Time constraint. Resource constraints. Set of variables Literature Review Concepts and definitions Privatization can be simply explained as a process in which the ownership transfers fromÃ Government hand to private hand. This term is also known as denationalization. It means transferring the control of a firm from the government sector to the private sector. It can be accomplished by sale or lease such as government selling 100% of an enterprise or selling 51% or even by selling a minority stake as long as the private sector is given full managerial (management) control. In financial terms, privatization means transferring a company from one whose shares are listed on the stock exchange and can be bought by the general public to one that is no longer listed or publicly traded because it has been bought by a private group. Privatization takes place to reduce the depletion of Government resources caused by losses of the state owned enterprises, this mostly createsÃ greater opportunities for the private sector to expand and modernizeÃ these enterprises. Productivity, efficiency, profitability increases and theÃ development of a valuable capital market occurs which releases resources forÃ development of the social and physical infrastructure. The process of privatization has some disadvantages as well. Private firms tend to be more efficient and cost effective so the excess workers are laid off to minimize costs. Employees do not benefit from paid leaves, which are given to government employees. Employees also dont get contracts for life time job in privatization, which they do get in the public sector. Hassan (2008) stated that Saudi Arabia is experiencing the expenditures of public sector. Privatization does have an impact on employees in public organizations. When there is a policy of gradual privatization, the old employees are trained in a certain manner, as to be ready for their new jobs respectively. If the company is sold through selling stocks than some of stocks should be sold to the employees themselves or given it to them (stock options). This increases their interest in the company and they become more motivated and satisfied. The resultant is good governance and profit. During the privatization period there should be certain specialized organizations who should be allowed to take part in processes in order to find solutions or relocation of surplus labor force. Employees should be motivated and trained from specialized trainers before and after the privatization period as it results in better performance and productivity. Bhaskar and Khan (1995) states in the jute indu stry case, privatization reduced employment considerably, while the output was not much reduced. Reduction in jobs was mainly of managers and the labor or mill-workers were not fired after privatization. The employment of manual (labor force) workers was increased in the privatized firms. Brown, Earle and Telegdy (2008) states that the greatest resistance of privatizing a firm usually comes from the firms own employees, who are afraid of wage cuts and job losses. The new management of privatized firms reduces the organizations labor costs as harder budget constraints and stronger profit-related incentives are promoted by them. This is called as the Efficiency Effect of privatization. The lower costs increase the firms market share and the total quantity demanded for the industry. New owners may reduce wages in order to cut back costs but if the firm plans to expand, then they might offer high wages to attract new better and trained workers. Also, the new owners might bring in high tech machinery which does the job of attracting workers with higher skills, thus they get higher wages. Cunha and Cooper (2005) states that the companies which are undergoing the process of privatization, several issues take place with the employees of that organization. Some of them are, role confusion, role over-load and under load, new-work relationships, job insecurity, career advancement/future trainings and deterioration of working conditions. All these factors may lead to physical health symptoms such as headaches, depressions, cardiovascular diseases, tension and anxiety etc, these factors and all of the listed above lead to dissatisfaction of the job subsequently. Falkenberg, Naswall, Sverke1 and Sjoberg (2009) states the employees working at different hierarchic levels have different resources and means to handle uncertainty associated with change (in our case privatization). Employees at a higher level of hierarchy have a greater responsibility in an organization and thus could experience more stress than other employee. Research also suggests that employees at higher positions are better able to handle uncertainty, as they are having more access to resources that help improve the possible negative consequences of privatization. Higher level executives tend to report less suffering than other employees during privatization. The employees present at the lower hierarchic levels, who have fewer resources for handling change disorder, there is an inclination for them to be more negatively affected by privatization. In conclusion, we can observe that dissatisfaction is observed at all levels of the hierarchy, whereas the greatest levels of disarr ay experienced as we move down from the top to the bottom levels. Critical Analysis of literature The articles in the literature reveal that privatization in the major parts of the world has created dissatisfaction amongst employees. Apart from the advantages of privatization to the firm itself and the employees, the method causes the firms to become cost effective, which means that downsizing takes place, jobs are lost. Paid leaves were offered to public sector employees along with life-time contractual jobs in most scenarios. All of this is removed once privatization takes place. As the management changes, the existing employees get confused about their roles, they experience stress, which leads to health problems such as cardiovascular (heart) diseases, depression, headaches etc. Usually, higher level executives are less affected than other employees during privatization. The employees present at the lower hierarchic levels, which have fewer resources, are more negatively affected by privatization. After the careful analysis of literature review, we have identified the following variables that will help us in making out theoretical framework: Fear of Job insecurity Stock-option plan Fringe Benefits Employees Union Training and development Rewards to the employees Training and development Rewards to the employees Stock-option plan Fear of Job insecurity Fringe Benefits Employee satisfaction level at PTCL after privatization (D.V) (I.Vs) Employees Union Theoretical Framework Employee satisfaction level at PTCL after privatization: This is our Dependant Variable. Other factors will be affecting the satisfaction level of the employees of PTCL after privatization directly. Independent Variables: Fear of Job insecurity: Employees will have a constant fear of job security which was not present before with the firm when it was owned by the state. This happens because the firms downsize to cut costs. Stock-option plan: The employees if given a stock option plan would make them involved in the organization, as they would have a feeling of control and involvement in the firm. If this option is not given to the employees, they would be considerably dissatisfied and de-motivated. Fringe Benefits: Fringe benefits such as paid leaves, housing allowances, travel/fuel allowanced etc increase the satisfaction level of employees. In a private firm, paid leaves are cancelled and are declared null and void. Employees Union: The Employee Unions protect and safeguard the laws/rights of employees. Basically, its a support and the voice of employees. They are very helpful in resolving the disputes between the employees and the employers. Private firms usually put a stop to all the unions and their activities. Training and development: Training (O.T.J/O.T.J) increases satisfaction level of employees, as they are offered a chance in advancing in their careers. Rewards to the employees: Rewards, compensations and better salary packages are the employee essential reasons for the satisfaction levels of employees. Proposed Research Methodology Sample Selection Sampling involves selecting individual units to measure from a larger population. The population refers to the set of individual units which the research question seeks to find out about. The Sample would consist of the employees that are working in Islamabad only. Our sample will base on every nth employee of PTCL in Islamabad. We will take every 10th employee of PTCL in Islamabad as our sample. Sampling frames The sampling frame is the group of individuals who had a real chance of being selected for the sample. Our sampling technique would be Systematic Random Sampling for the masses of the workforce of PTCL in Islamabad. The population will include all employees that are working in PTCL. Total numbers of employees of PTCL are approximately 64000 (It comprises 56,000 regular and 8,000 contractual). Unit of Analysis Our target is not towards the collective communities in the data collection stage, but instead is focused on the individuals i.e. the employees of PTCL in Islamabad. Type of Study Our study type is Exploratory as we are exploring the level of employee satisfaction after the privatization of PTCL. We are exploring the impact on employee after the privatization of PTCL. Time Horizon The total time period for this research is not over a period of time but is specifically at a time. That time is the cross-sectional (snapshot). Researchers Strength The researchers are graduates who are pursuing their masters degree presently. This gives them the added advantage of being familiar with report writing and research capabilities. They have access and knowledge to latest methods and tools for academically related research work. Instrument development/selection Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Questionnaires Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Interviews Proposed Data-Collection Methods The proposed data collection methods are questionnaires. They will be consisting of both, open and closed ended questionnaires. Another data collection method would be the use of likert scale, which will consist of responses. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE MEASURING THE LEVEL OF EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IN THE PAKISTAN TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANY LIMITED AFTER PRIVATIZATION Please show your level of agreement by marking tick (ÃâÃ ¼) against each statement: Key: 5 = SA : Strongly Agree 4 = A : Agree 3 = N : Neither Agree Nor Disagree = DA : Disagree 1 = SD : Strongly Disagree Fear of Job insecurity SD D N A SA Q1) I fear that I will be replaced by another employee who will be hired from the corporate sector. 1 2 3 4 5 Q2) I fear that, while adapting the cost-benefit strategy after privatization the firm might fire me as a downsizing measure. 1 2 3 4 5 Stock-option plan SD D N A SA Q3) My Company offers stock-options/shares at a discounted price. 1 2 3 4 5 Q4) My Company gives stock-options/shares instead of cash bonuses, so that I have a feeling of increased satisfaction with the firm. 1 2 3 4 5 Fringe Benefits Q.5) My Company gives attractive benefits in housing allowances for both purchasing and rental. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.6) My Company provides yearly travel and holiday packages for me and my family. 1 2 3 4 5 SD D N A SA Employees Union Q7) My Company has an employees union, which protects and fights for the rights of employees, when an incident of injustice occurs. 1 2 3 4 5 SD D N A SA Training and development Q8) My Company offers training and development program that helps me in career progression. 1 2 3 4 5 SD D N A SA SD D N A SA Q9) Rewards are offered to employees on a timely basis. 1 2 3 4 5 Q10) Rewards are given in monetary/nonmonetary forms. 1 2 3 4 5 Q11) Project/goal completion in early timeframe and high achievers get rewards practically. 1 2 3 4 5Rewards to the employees Employee Satisfaction Q12) I am satisfied with the work assigned to me in this organization. 1 2 3 4 5 SD D N A SA Personal information Q13. Gender 1: Male 2: Female Q14. Age 1: 15-25 2: 25-35 3: Below 50 4: Above 50 Q15. Qualification 1: Matric-P.T.C 2. FA/Fcs-C.T 3: Grad (B.Ed) 4: Post Grad (M.Ed) 5: Others Q16. Designation 1: Top/Administrative level 2: Middle level. 3: Low level / Supervisory / First-line managers Q17. Experience 1: 1-5 years. 2: 6-10 years. 3: 11-15 years. 4: 16-20 years. 5: 21 Above. Thank you for your valuable time and input. Best regards, M.B.A Students: Haseeb Raza Asher Shafqat S.Z.A.B.I.S.T, Islamabad. Results and Discussions Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics is used check the nature of the data and its Mean values and Standard deviation. Mean: ÃÅ½Ã £X / N (ÃÅ½Ã £X = Sum of all Mean) = 31.42 / 30 = 1.0473 The mean value is 1.0473. This shows that most of the responses are towards strongly disagree. It means after privatization of P.T.C.L most of the employees are dissatisfied with their work and other benefits given to them. Correlation Correlation coefficient is a measure of the relationship between two attributes. It is also known as the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The value of coefficient can range from -1 to +1. Consider the variables x and y; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ If r = -1, then x and y are perfectly negatively correlated. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ If r = 1, then x and y are perfectly positively correlated. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ If r = 0, then x and y are not correlated. QUESTIONS Fear of Downsizing Stock-options/shares at a discounted price Housing allowances Employees union Goal completion and high achievers get rewards practically Employee Satisfaction Fear of replacing by another employee 0.902 -0.7873 -0.8640 Stock-options/shares instead of cash bonuses 0.5048 Travel and holiday packages 0.6621 Training and development program 0.7897 0.8518 Monetary/Non-monetary Rewards 0.6690 Fear of downsizing is positively correlated with fear of replacing by another employee. Goal Completion and high achievers get rewards practically is negatively correlated with fear of replacing by another employee. If there will be fear that employee will be replaced then the employee will not complete his goal and will not achieve high. Stock-options/shares at a discounted price is positively correlated with Stock-options/shares instead of cash bonuses. Housing allowances is positively correlated with Travel and holiday packages. Employees union is positively correlated with Training and development program. Employee satisfaction is negatively correlated with fear of replacing by another employee. If there will be fear that employee will be replaced by another employee of corporate sector then employee will be dissatisfied. Employee satisfaction is positively correlated with Training and development program. Employee satisfaction is positively correlated with Monetary/Non-monetary Rewards. Regression Regression analysis is a statistical technique that is used to survey and represent the relationship between two or more variables. A linear regression model is used to explain the relationship between two or more variables, Using the Formula Y= a + bX. Y= Dependent Variable a= Y intercept/ constant b= Slope X= Independent Variable Dependent Variable: Employee Satisfaction Independent Variable: Fear of Job insecurity, Stock-option plan, Fringe Benefits, Employees Union, Training and development, Rewards to the employees. TABLE 1: Regression Dependent Variable: Employee Satisfaction Independent Variable: Fear of Job insecurity, Stock-option plan, Fringe Benefits, Employees Union, Training and development, Rewards to the employees. TABLE 2: TABLE 3: As shown in Table 3 the value of constant a is 1.853. Fear of Job insecurity Fear of downsizing If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Fear of downsizing taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be -0.291 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360-0.291 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360-0.291 (Fear of downsizing) Significance Level = 0.158 The value of B Is negative, so the variables have inverse relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Fear of downsizing decreases. Stock-option plan Stock option-shares at a discounted price If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Stock option-shares at a discounted price taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.080 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.080 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.080 (Stock option-shares at a discounted price) Significance Level = 0.528 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Stock option-shares at a discounted price also increases. Stock option-shares instead of cash bonuses If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Stock option-shares instead of cash bonuses taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.140 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.140 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.140 (Stock option-shares instead of cash bonuses) Significance Level = 0.220 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Stock option-shares instead of cash bonuses also increases. Fringe Benefits Travel and holiday packages If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Travel and holiday packages taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.082 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.082 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.082 (Travel and holiday packages) Significance Level = 0.610 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Travel and holiday packages also increases. Employees Union If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Employees Union taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.063 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.063 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.063 (Employees Union) Significance Level = 0.764 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Employees Union also increases. Training and development If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Training and development taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.206 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.206 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.206 (Training and development) Significance Level = 0.269 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Training and development also increases. Rewards to the employees Timely basis rewards If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Timely basis rewards taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.198 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.198 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.198 (Timely basis rewards) Significance Level = 0.280 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Timely basis rewards also increases. Goal completion and High achievers If we take dependent Variable Y as Employee Satisfaction and Independent Variable X as Goal completion and High achievers taking 1.360 as constant then its slope B would be 0.024 Putting the values in the Y= a + bX, we get: Y= 1.360+0.024 X Job Satisfaction = 1.360+0.024 (Goal completion and High achievers) Significance Level = 0.877 The value of B is Positive, so the variables have direct relation with each other. If we increase satisfaction then Goal completion and High achievers also increases. Recommendations Our recommendations are based on the results generated from the questionnaire. Overall we can conclude that the variables identified in out framework do strongly affect the satisfaction level of employees at PTCL after privatization. Employees strongly agree that they have a certain fear of losing their jobs after privatization. Stock option plans, or giving employees stock/share as added benefits instead of cash bonus etc. would increase satisfaction levels and make the employees more productive in the privatized firm. The employees agreed for having regular handing out of the stock options in the company. Fringe benefits are those services that motivate the employees and increase their satisfaction levels considerably. Employees were disagree, when they were asked to assess the fringe benefits as direct measure of their satisfaction levels in PTCL after privatization. Employee unions or those entities that safeguard the rights of employees. Employees responses were strongly disagre e that there were no Employees Union present in their organization. Basically these unions prevent unfair measures from happening with the employees. Training and development enhances the careers of employee and grooms them in the corporate world. It also paves way for their promotions in an organization. The employees responses were mostly disagreed because there was no training given to them after privatization. Training should be given to them that help them in their career progression. Rewards should be given to them on timely basis and all kind of monetary/non-monetary rewards should be given to them. To appreciate the employees who complete their Projects/goals before time rewards should be given to them so that they get motivated and satisfied and achieve high.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã THE POLITICS OF COMEDY Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Is this thing on? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In efforts to promote voter education, laughter is perhaps the best strategery. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Comedy and tragedy prove one in the same, as the saying goes. The variability of the twosome, however, substantiates rather inconsistently in politics, an arena overflowing with participants who take themselves too seriously. And where a potential candidate attempts to utilize comic relief, one often discovers the result to be rather tragic. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In lieu of the consequences politicians may endure with the mere utterance of a poor joke, most tend to stray from the possibility of Meet the Press turned comedy hour. Especially when their reputations are at stake; politicians are well aware, according to Mark Katz, humorist and speechwriter for Bill Clinton, that Ã¢â¬Å"a good joke will last about a weekÃ¢â¬ , whereas a Ã¢â¬Å"bad joke will be reprinted in you obituary.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perhaps responsibility lies within the confines of a narrow-minded media, exhibited as a threat to be avoided rather than a tool to be implemented. But certainly with just cause; Ã¢â¬Å"the news media are poorly suited to their role as the principal intermediary between candidates and voters,Ã¢â¬ rooted in the conception of politics as Ã¢â¬Å"gameÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"businessÃ¢â¬ rather than a Ã¢â¬Å"struggleÃ¢â¬ over national policy. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The aforementioned incidents occur frequently, but not absolutely, should candidates appropriately utilize humor. The war on terror provides unavoidable roadblocks on an already-tumultuous campaign trail, and even primitive technology such as television suffices in establishing the general 9/11 Ã¢â¬Ëfear climateÃ¢â¬â¢. The presumption of a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s entrepreneurial priorities over his public relationship undermines the use of humor as the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate weapon. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The primarily noticeable aspect of political campaign humor pertains to its absence. Undoubtedly humor Ã¢â¬Å"is used more sparingly than songs in political commercialsÃ¢â¬ ; the commodity appears even more so in the early campaign efforts of the mid-nineteenth century than recent endeavors. HumorÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness originates from its multilevel success in the campaigning process. Involuntarily proliferated by an ever-expanding press, the ideal candidate would employ comedy because of its effervescent facility of concurrent humanization and advertisement. Moreover humorous politicians formulate an equally comical and less aggressive response within the entertainment realm, successfully intertwining the sphere of pop culture with the relatively unscathed territory of political science. The general consensus regarding the benefits of humor relates to its malleability; it can Ã¢â¬Å"be employed to attack the opposition, or it can serve to enhance a campaign.Ã ¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã While it can be argued that humor refers to a conscious campaign maneuver on the part of its source, as a tool it only succeeds with regard to the respective candidate.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Leopold Sedar Senghor (9 October 1906 Ã¢â¬â 20 December 2001) Leopold Sedar Senghor was born in Joal,Ã Afrique Occidentale FrancaiseÃ (French West Africa now Republic of Senegal), to a Serer (third largest ethnic group in Senegal) Father and Roman Catholic mother. In 1928 Senghor traveled to Paris to continue his studies on a partial scholarship. He became the first black African to become anÃ agrege, the top qualification for a teacher in the French education system, and became a professor of African languages and civilization at theÃ Ecole Nationale de la France d'Outre-Mer.When Senegal achieved independence in 1960, Senghor was elected its first president. He retired from the presidency on 31 December 1960. Senghor retired to France, became the first black African member of the French Academy in 1984, and published his memoir,Ã (Ã¢â¬ËThat Which I Believe: Negritude, Frenchness, and Universal Civilization') in 1988. He died at Verson, France, on 20 December 2001. Phi losophy: Leopold Sedar Senghor believes that every African shares certain distinctive and innate characteristics, values and aesthetics.Negritude is the active rooting of an Black identity in this inescapable and natural African essence. (The major premise of Negritude is therefore that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s biological make-up (race) defines oneÃ¢â¬â¢s outer (skin color) as well as inner (spirit/essence) traits. It is a concept which holds that there is a Ã¢â¬Ëshared culture and subjectivity and spiritual essenceÃ¢â¬â¢ among members of the same racial group. Instead of rejecting the (colonialist) theory that race defines oneÃ¢â¬â¢s being; Negritude rejects the assumption that the African is inherently inferior to the Ã¢â¬Å"white manÃ¢â¬ .To Senghor, this makes Negritude a weapon against colonialism and an Ã¢â¬Ëinstrument of liberationÃ¢â¬â¢. To Senghor, the African essence is externalized in a distinctive culture and philosophy. This claim is supported by SenghorÃ¢â¬â¢s asse rtion that Negritude Ã¢â¬â the rooting of identity in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s natural essence Ã¢â¬â is Ã¢â¬Ëdiametrically opposed to the traditional philosophy of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢ (the colonizer). To Senghor, European philosophy is Ã¢â¬Ëessentially static, objectiveÃ¢â¬ ¦ It is founded on separation and opposition: on analysis and conflictÃ¢â¬â¢.In contrast, African philosophy is based on Ã¢â¬ËunityÃ¢â¬â¢, balance, negotiation and an appreciation of Ã¢â¬Ëmovement and rhythmÃ¢â¬â¢. SenghorÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of Ã¢â¬Å"NegritudeÃ¢â¬ posits an essence for blacks who are intuitive, sensual, and creative. In other words, he argues that blacks have a unique essence, with out which the Ã¢â¬Å"civilization of the UniversalÃ¢â¬ would be incomplete. (This is reminiscent of Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ belief that Blacks have a particular value to add to world history). This essence, according to Senghor, is opposite from the white essence, which is based in reason and objectivity.
Friday, January 3, 2020
A Psychoanalysis of Ã¢â¬Å"JasonÃ¢â¬ In considering his waves of anxiety and depression, it seems as though Jason is experiencing deep shame about his gender and sexual identity. The shame he feels regarding these two aspects of identity, however, are not one in the same. During a crucial stage of development from 3 to 6 years of age, Jason recalls being extremely close to his mother. As a stay at home parent, Jason spent many days with his mother, baking, watching T.V. and playing board games. Because his father was rather distant from Jason and his mother, except on distinct occasions, an oedipal conflict formed. JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s father felt as though his rights and privileges to the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother were being threatened when considering the close relationship between the mother and son. Furthermore, JasonÃ¢â¬â¢s father was rather physically and emotionally distant because of his work schedule. This lack of connection prevented the oedipal conflict from being resolved as a boy must bond with his father in order to do so. As a result, Jason may have turned the desire for his mother and feminine energy inward, resulting in confusion over his gender later in life. While he was close to his mother during childhood, this nurturing relationship was met with a simultaneous, overbearing enforcement of a religion that is largely frowned upon in society. 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